|Equation||(# high-risk individuals tested) x (% individuals tested solely because of the program) x (# QALY increase) x ($ QALY)|
|Explanation||This metric estimates the impact of hepatitis C testing on high-risk populations leading to improved health, estimated in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALY).|
Number of individuals tested: Reported by program.
Percentage of participants who are treated solely because of the program: [7.5%]. There is no high-quality proxy for a counterfactual rate of screening of hepatitis C, so we use the testing rates among commercially insured people who inject drugs (Bull-Otterson, et al., 2020).
QALY increase: [0.4]. This is the average impact of screenings computed using summary results reported by Hahné et al (2013) and similar results from Nayagam et al (2017).
$ value per QALY: [$50,000]
Benefits are then discounted to present value based on the average age of participation to life expectancy.
|References||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Vaccination Coverage Among Adults in the United States, National Health Interview Survey, 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/coverage/adultvaxview/pubs-resources/NHIS-2016.html|
Hahné, S. J., Veldhuijzen, I. K., Wiessing, L., Lim, T.-A., Salminen, M., & Laar, M. van de. (2013). Infection with hepatitis B and C virus in Europe: a systematic review of prevalence and cost-effectiveness of screening. BMC Infectious Diseases, 13(1).
Bull-Otterson, L., Huang, Y.-L. A., Zhu, W., King, H., Edlin, B. R., & Hoover, K. W. (2020). Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing Among Commercially Insured Persons Who Inject Drugs, United States, 2010–2017. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa017
Nayagam, S., Sicuri, E., Lemoine, M., Easterbrook, P., Conteh, L., Hallett, T. B., & Thursz, M. (2017). Economic evaluations of HBV testing and treatment strategies and applicability to low and middle-income countries. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17(Suppl 1).