|Equation||(# participants) x (Q: % earning a higher education degree due to the intervention) x ($ additional lifetime earnings from a higher education degree vs. high school completion) x (Causation factor of a college degree on earnings)|
|Explanation||This metric estimates the impact of counseling or coaching for high school students on the likelihood of postsecondary persistence or receiving a postsecondary degree, leading to increased lifetime earnings.
Number of participants: Reported by program.
Q: Percentage earning a higher education degree due to the intervention: [0.05]. This is estimated by Constellation Fund staff using the following formula:
In this formula, ES [0.10] is the effect size from a meta-analysis of availability and expenditures in student services (including academic and non-academic supports) on the rate of graduation at any level of higher education. The effect size is measured in percent increase. The base percentage [48%] is the average graduation rate at 2- and 4-year postsecondary institutions estimated using data from the National Student Clearinghouse (2016).
Additional lifetime earnings from a higher education degree vs. high school diploma: [$217,000]. This is the weighted average of additional lifetime earnings of associate and bachelor’s degree holders computed using ACS data (U.S. Census, 2017). These benefits are already discounted to present value.
Causation factor of college on earnings: [0.56]. This is the percentage of observed earnings gains caused by a higher education degree. This factor measures the degree to which the observed difference in earnings between college graduates and individuals with only a high school completion is causal (WSIPP, 2019).
|References||Bettinger, E. P., Long, B. T., Oreopoulos, P., & Sanbonmatsu, L. (2012). The role of application assistance and information in college decisions: Results from the h&r block fafsa experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 127(3), 1205–1242. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjs017
Carruthers, C. K., & Fox, W. F. (2016). Aid for all: College coaching, financial aid, and post-secondary persistence in Tennessee. Economics of Education Review, 51, 97–112.
National Student Clearinghouse (2016). National College Progression Rates. Retrieved from: https://nscresearchcenter.org/hsbenchmarks2016/
Rodríguez-Planas, N. (2012). Longer-Term Impacts of Mentoring, Educational Services, and Learning Incentives: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in the United States. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 4(4), 121–139. https://doi.org/10.1257/app.4.4.121
Stephan, J. L., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2013). Can High Schools Reduce College Enrollment Gaps with a New Counseling Model? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 35(2), 200–219. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373712462624
U.S. Census Bureau. (2016). American Community Survey 5-year estimates – public use microdata sample, 2012-2016. Generated using Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) in the Seven-county Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.
Washington State Institute for Public Policy. (2019). Benefit-cost technical documentation. Olympia, WA: Author. Retrieved from: http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/TechnicalDocumentation/WsippBenefitCostTechnicalDocumentation.pdf