|Equation||(# participants) x (Q: % earning a higher education degree due to the intervention) x ($ additional lifetime earnings from a postsecondary degree vs. high school completion) x (Causation factor of a college degree on earnings)|
|Explanation||This metric estimates the impact of counseling or coaching on postsecondary campuses on the likelihood of postsecondary persistence or receiving a postsecondary degree, leading to increased lifetime earnings. Counseling and coaching include, but are not limited to orientation attendance, intensive advising, help in defining clear academic plans, and one-on-one coaching.
Number of participants: Reported by program.
Q: Percentage earning a higher education degree due to the intervention: [0.05]. This is Estimated by Constellation Fund staff using the following formula:
In this formula, ES [0.10] is the effect size from a meta-analysis of counseling or coaching on the rate of graduation at any level of higher education. The effect size is measured in percent increase. The base percentage [48%] is the average graduation rate for 2 and 4-year institutions for low-income students estimated using data from National Student Clearinghouse (2016).
Additional lifetime earnings from a postsecondary degree vs. high school completion: [$217,000]. This is the weighted average of additional lifetime earnings of associate and bachelor’s degree holders computed using ACS data (U.S. Census, 2017). These benefits are already discounted to present value.
Causation factor of college on earnings: [0.46]. This is the percentage of observed earnings gains caused by a higher education degree, based on an average of individuals who some college experience and a 4-year degree. This factor measures the degree to which the observed difference in earnings between college graduates and individuals with a high school diploma is causal (WSIPP, 2019).
|References||Barkley, A. P. (2010). “Academic Coaching” for Enhanced Learning, Higher Levels of Student Responsibility, and Greater Retention Producer Expectations and the Extensive Margin in Grain Supply Response View project. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254384174
Bettinger, E. P., & Baker, R. B. (2014). The Effects of Student Coaching: An Evaluation of a Randomized Experiment in Student Advising. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 36(1), 3–19. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373713500523
Hatch, D. K., & Garcia, C. E. (2017). Academic advising and the persistence intentions of community college students in their first weeks in college. Review of Higher Education, 40(3), 353–390. https://doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2017.0014
National Student Clearinghouse (2016). National College Progression Rates. Retrieved from: https://nscresearchcenter.org/hsbenchmarks2016/
Pechac, S., & Slantcheva-Durst, S. (2019). Coaching Toward Completion: Academic Coaching Factors Influencing Community College Student Success. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1177/1521025119869849
Sneyers, E., & De Witte, K. (2018). Interventions in higher education and their effect on student success: a meta-analysis. Educational Review, 70(2), 208–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2017.1300874
U.S. Census Bureau. (2016). American Community Survey 5-year estimates – public use microdata sample, 2012-2016. Generated using Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) in the Seven-county Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.
Washington State Institute for Public Policy. (2019). Benefit-cost technical documentation. Olympia, WA: Author. Retrieved from: http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/TechnicalDocumentation/WsippBenefitCostTechnicalDocumentation.pdf