|Equation||(# mothers) x (Q: % increased chances of graduating from high school due to the intervention) x ($ additional lifetime earnings between high school vs. no high school)|
|Explanation||This metric estimates the impact of home visiting programs leading to increased maternal academic achievement on maternal lifetime earnings. It is based on a meta-analysis of the impact of a wide array of home visiting programs including the following: Healthy Families America (HFA), Family Check Up for Children, Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), Parents as Teachers (PAT), Triple P – Positive Parenting Program®—Variants suitable for home visiting, Family Spirit, Child First, Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY), Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO), Play and Learning Strategies (PALS). These programs serve children from birth through age 17, as well as mothers and expectant mothers.
Number of mothers: Reported by program.
Q: Increased chances of graduating from high school due to the intervention: [0.13]. This is estimated by Constellation staff using the following formula:
In this formula, ES is the effect size from a meta-analysis of home visiting programs on mothers’ education [0.74] (Constellation computations using 2 studies). The base percentage is [0.18], which is the standard deviation (SD) of the proportion of low-income students graduating from high school in Minnesota. We estimate the SD using a graduation rate of [65%] (Minnesota Compass, 2018) and student data from the Minnesota Department of Education (2019).
Additional lifetime earnings between High school vs. no high school: [$238,200]. This is computed using ACS data (U.S. Census Bureau, 2016). These benefits are already discounted to present value. This lifetime value includes $39,500 from potential higher education achievement beyond high school ($198,700 from high school + $39,500 from higher education). See Metric EDU006 for details on assumptions about estimates of higher education achievement and subsequent earnings increases as a result of increased high school completion.
|References||The Commonwealth Fund. (2018). Health Center Data Center. Retrieved from: https://datacenter.commonwealthfund.org/topics/children-medical-and-dental-preventive-care-visit-past-year
Minnesota Department of Education (2019). Student graduation data retrieved from: https://public.education.mn.gov/MDEAnalytics/DataTopic.jsp?TOPICID=2
Fergusson, D. M., Grant, H., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Randomized trial of the early start program of home visitation. Pediatrics, 116(6). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-0948
Barnet, B., Liu, J., DeVoe, M., Alperovitz-Bichell, K., & Duggan, A. K. (2007). Home Visiting for Adolescent Mothers: Effects on Parenting, Maternal Life Course, and Primary Care Linkage. The Annals of Family Medicine, 5(3), 224–232. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.629
Sweet MA, Appelbaum MI. Is home visiting an effective strategy? A meta-analytic review of home visiting programs for families with young children. Child Dev. 2004;75(5):1435–1456
U.S. Census Bureau. (2016). American Community Survey 5-year estimates – public use microdata sample, 2012-2016. Generated using Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) in the Seven-county Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.
Washington State Institute for Public Policy. (2017). Benefit-cost technical documentation. Olympia, WA: Author. Retrieved from: http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/TechnicalDocumentation/WsippBenefitCostTechnicalDocumentation.pdf