|Equation||(# children) x (Q: Improved probability of graduating from high school due to the intervention) x ($ difference in lifetime earnings for high school graduates vs. no high school completion)|
|This metric estimates the direct impact of home visiting leading to increased academic achievement on lifetime earnings. It is based on a meta-analysis of the impact of a wide array of home visiting programs including the following: Healthy Families America (HFA), Family Check Up for Children, Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), Parents as Teachers (PAT), Triple P – Positive Parenting Program®—variants suitable for home visiting, Family Spirit, Child First, Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY), Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO), and Play and Learning Strategies (PALS). These programs serve children from birth through age 17, as well as mothers and expectant mothers.
Number of children: The number of participants reported by program.
Q: Improved chances of high school graduation due to the intervention: [0.11]. Constellation staff arrived at this estimate using the following formula:
In this formula, ES is the effect size from a meta-analysis of prenatal care programs on low-weight births [0.63] (Constellation computations using 2 studies, one of them (Manning, et al.2010) is a meta-analysis). The base percentage is [0.28], which is the standard deviation of the graduation rate of low-income students in the Twin-Cities. Constellation staff calculations are based on data from Minnesota Compass (2018).
Difference in lifetime earnings for high school graduates vs. no high school completion: [$238,200]. This is computed using ACS data (U.S. Census Bureau, 2016). These benefits are already discounted to present value. This lifetime value includes $39,500 from potential higher education achievement beyond high school ($198,700 from high school + $39,500 from higher education). See Metric EDU006 for details on assumptions about estimates of higher education achievement and subsequent earnings increases as a result of increased high school completion.
|References||Levenstein, P., Levenstein, S., Shiminski, J. A., & Stolzberg, J. E. (1998). Long-term impact of a verbal interaction program for at-risk toddlers: An exploratory study of high school outcomes in a replication of the mother-child home program. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(2), 267–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(99)80040-9
Manning, M., Homel, R., & Smith, C. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effects of early developmental prevention programs in at-risk populations on non-health outcomes in adolescence. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 506–519. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CHILDYOUTH.2009.11.003
Minnesota Compass (2018). Education: High school graduation. High school students graduating on time by income. Retrieved from http://www.mncompass.org/education/high-school-graduation#7-6108-d
U.S. Census Bureau. (2016). American Community Survey 5-year estimates – public use microdata sample, 2012-2016. Generated using Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) in the Seven-county Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.
Washington State Institute for Public Policy. (2019). Benefit-cost technical documentation. Olympia, WA: Author. Retrieved from: http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/TechnicalDocumentation/WsippBenefitCostTechnicalDocumentation.pdf