|Equation||(# participants) x (% of participants getting assistance solely because of the program) x (Q: Impact of the program on health outcomes) x (% Health care costs paid out of pocket by victims) x ($ Health care costs associated with domestic abuse)|
|Explanation||This metric estimates the impact of support and assistance for adults related to domestic violence on lifetime mental and physical health care expenses. Based on the evidence reviewed, intensive advocacy may improve short-term quality of life and reduce physical abuse one to two years after the intervention for women recruited from domestic violence shelters or refuges. Brief advocacy may provide small short-term mental health benefits and reduce abuse.
Number of participants: Reported by program.
Percentage of participants getting assistance solely because of the program: [79%, female]. This is based on reporting that 21% of female victims and 6% of male victims disclosed their victimization to a doctor or nurse at some point in their lifetime (Black et al, 2010).
Q: Impact of the program on health outcomes: [0.14]. The program’s impact on participant health outcomes is estimated using the following formula:
In this formula, ES [0.37] is the average odds ratio of the impact of interventions on physical abuse and mental health. (Rivas et al, 2015). The base percentage [26%] is the average incidence rate of negative health conditions among individuals with a history of abuse (Black et al, 2011)
Percentage of health care costs paid out of pocket by victims: [30%]. This is the reported average of medical and mental health costs paid out of pocket by victims (Theresa’s Fund, 2018).
Health care costs associated with domestic abuse: [$11,500]. This is the estimated present discounted lifetime health care costs associated with domestic abuse (2018 dollars).
|References||Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/NISVS-2010SummaryReport-508.pdf
Holmes, M.R., Richter, F.G.C., Votruba, M.E., Berg, K. A., & Bender, A. E.. (2018). Economic Burden of Child Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence in the United States. Journal of Family Violence 33(239).
Rivas, C., Ramsay, J., Sadowski, L., Davidson, L. L., Dunne, D., Eldridge, S., …Feder, G. (2015). Advocacy interventions to reduce or eliminate violence and promote the physical and psychosocial well-being of women who experience intimate partner abuse. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12).
Theresa’s Fund, Domestic Shelters. (2015). Economic Impact of Domestic Violence. Retrieved from: https://www.domesticshelters.org/domestic-violence-statistics/economic-impact-of-domestic-violence